Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of the lower urinary system (bladder and urethra) in the dog. This tumor is considered locally invasive and is moderately to highly likely to metastasize to another area. Much like the tumors of the anal gland, surgical options are dependent on the location, and often, these tumors cannot be completely removed. In such cases, chemotherapy or even anti-inflammatory drugs may be recommended. Occasionally, in certain cases, radiation therapy may also be recommended. Signs of transitional cell carcinoma also depend on the location. Tumors of the bladder are often associated with blood in the urine. Tumors below the bladder, ., the urethra, are associated with straining or urinary obstruction.