Explain the adverse side effects of taking anabolic steroids

Benzonatate acts peripherally by anesthetizing the stretch receptors of vagal afferent fibers located in the alveoli of the lungs, the bronchi, and the pleura. The drug may also act centrally by inhibiting the transmission of the cough reflex at the level of the medulla where the vagal afferent impulse is transmitted to the motor nerves. In patients with asthma, intravenously administered benzonatate increased minute ventilation, rate and depth of respiration. However, overall lung volume and expiratory flow rate were not altered. At recommended oral dosages, benzonatate has no inhibitory effect on the respiratory center; however, in overdosage, the pharmacology of benzonatate resembles that of other ester-type local anesthetics. Clinical effects include initial CNS stimulation, which is followed by CNS depression and respiratory compromise.
 
When applied locally, as in the oropharynx prior to intubation or endoscopy, benzonatate acts like other local anesthetics. The drug blocks the generation and conduction of nerve impulses at the level of the cell membrane. Local anesthetics bind directly within the intracellular portion of voltage-gated sodium channels. This decreases the rate of membrane depolarization, thereby increasing the threshold for electrical excitability. The blockade affects all nerve fibers in the following sequence: autonomic, sensory, and motor, with effects diminishing in reverse order. Loss of nerve function clinically is as follows: pain, temperature, touch, proprioception, and skeletal muscle tone. Direct nerve membrane penetration is necessary for effective anesthesia, which is achieved by applying benzonatate around the nerve trunks or ganglia supplying the area to be anesthetized. Benzonatate provides anesthesia in roughly 1—2 minutes after direct topical application to the oropharynx, noticeable clinically as the loss of the gag reflex.

AMBIEN, like other sedative -hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Co-administration with other CNS depressants (., benzodiazepines , opioids, tricyclic antidepressants , alcohol) increases the risk of CNS depression. Dosage adjustments of AMBIEN and of other concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when AMBIEN is administered with such agents because of the potentially additive effects. The use of AMBIEN with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ].

In Type III immune complex reactions to a drug, elevation of nonspecific inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein may occur. If available, more specific laboratory testing for complement levels (CH50, C3, C4) or circulating immune complexes can be conducted. Positive tests help confirm the clinical diagnosis; negative tests do not exclude the diagnosis of immune complex disease. Systemic vasculitides induced by medication may be detected by autoantibody tests such as antinuclear antibody or antihistone antibody. 28

Mefloquine is a chiral molecule with two asymmetric carbon centres, which means it has four different stereoisomers . The drug is currently manufactured and sold as a racemate of the ( R , S )- and ( S , R )-enantiomers by Hoffman-LaRoche , a Swiss pharmaceutical company. Essentially, it is two drugs in one. Plasma concentrations of the (–)-enantiomer are significantly higher than those for the (+)-enantiomer, and the pharmacokinetics between the two enantiomers are significantly different. The (+)-enantiomer has a shorter half-life than the (–)-enantiomer. [11]

Explain the adverse side effects of taking anabolic steroids

explain the adverse side effects of taking anabolic steroids

Mefloquine is a chiral molecule with two asymmetric carbon centres, which means it has four different stereoisomers . The drug is currently manufactured and sold as a racemate of the ( R , S )- and ( S , R )-enantiomers by Hoffman-LaRoche , a Swiss pharmaceutical company. Essentially, it is two drugs in one. Plasma concentrations of the (–)-enantiomer are significantly higher than those for the (+)-enantiomer, and the pharmacokinetics between the two enantiomers are significantly different. The (+)-enantiomer has a shorter half-life than the (–)-enantiomer. [11]

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