Gonadal steroids wiki

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

The actions of sex steroids on brain and behavior traditionally have been divided into organizational and activational effects. Organizational effects are permanent and occur early in development; activational effects are transient and occur throughout life. Over the past decade, experimental results have accumulated which do not fit such a simple two-process theory. Specifically, the characteristics said to distinguish organizational and activational effects on behavior are sometimes mixed, as when permanent effects occur in adulthood. Attempts to determine whether specific cellular processes are uniquely associated with either organizational or activational effects are unsuccessful. These considerations blur the organizational-activational distinction sufficiently to suggest that a rigid dichotomy is no longer tenable.

The pharmacodynamics of anabolic steroids are unlike peptide hormones. Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells through their interaction with the cell’s surface receptors . Conversely, as fat-soluble hormones, anabolic steroids are membrane permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of anabolic steroids begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [ 20 ] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. [ 21 ] Different types of anabolic steroids bind to the androgen receptor with different affinities , depending on their chemical structure. [ 3 ] Some anabolic steroids such as methandrostenolone bind weakly to this receptor in vitro, but still exhibit androgenic effects in vivo. The reason for this discrepancy is not known. [ 22 ] On the other hand, steroids such as oxandrolone bind tightly to the receptor and act mostly on gene expression . [ citation needed ]

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Gonads start developing as a common primordium (an organ in the earliest stage of development), in the form of gonadal ridges , [6] and only later are differentiated to male or female sex organs . The presence of the SRY gene , [7] located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factor , determines male sexual differentiation. In the absence of the SRY gene from the Y chromosome, the female sex (ovaries instead of testes) will develop. The development of the gonads is a part of the development of the urinary and reproductive organs .

Because non-genomic pathways include any mechanism that is not a genomic effect, there are various non-genomic pathways. However, all of these pathways are mediated by some type of steroid hormone receptor found at the plasma membrane. [13] Ion channels, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and membrane fluidity have all been shown to be affected by steroid hormones. [9] Of these, GPCR linked proteins are the most more information on these proteins and pathways, visit the steroid hormone receptor page.

Gonadal steroids wiki

gonadal steroids wiki

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