Pharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

Founded in 1873, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology is edited on behalf of the German Society of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (DGPT), and the Sphingolipid Club. This monthly journal publishes invited reviews, original articles and short communications. Coverage focuses on new and significant information on drug action and toxicity of chemical compounds. Thus, its scope extends to all fields of experimental and clinical pharmacology as well as toxicology and includes studies in the fields of neuropharmacology and cardiovascular pharmacology as well as those describing drug actions at the cellular, biochemical and molecular levels. Short communications offer rapid publication of significant findings of current interest that represent a conceptual advance in the field.

This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca V . This receptor-channel complex is coupled to the G s G protein , which activates adenylyl cyclase , catalysing the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which then activates protein kinase A , and counterbalancing phosphatase PP2A . Protein kinase A then goes on to phosphorylate (and thus inactivate) myosin light-chain kinase , which causes smooth muscle relaxation, accounting for the vasodilatory effects of beta 2 stimulation. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling. A two-state biophysical and molecular model has been proposed to account for the pH and REDOX sensitivity of this and other GPCRs. [11]

ALPHA 1 AGONISTS

Direct Acting Agents
These are synthetic agents that directly activate the alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor. These structural modifications of the parent catecholamine nucleus result in drugs that are orally active and have longer plasma half-lives. However, these same modifications result in lower affinity for the receptor than do the endogenous agonists (epinephrine or norepinephrine). There are two structural classes of alpha 1 agonists phenethylamines which are closely aligned in structure to epinephrine and the imidazolines, compounds structurally unrelated to epinephrine. Levonordeferin is a phenyethylamine that has been used in dental practice in combination with local anesthetics.

Uses
1. Hypotension-to increase blood pressure during a surgical procedure where a general anesthetic has induced hypotension

2. Ophthalmic preparations-to induce mydrasis also in topical preparations for symptomatic release of eye irritation.

3. Cough and cold preparations-Induces constriction of nasal mucosa decreases resistance to air flow.

Indirect Acting Sympathomimetics
These agents require the presence of endogenous catecholamines to produce their effects. They have little activity if catecholamines are depleted.

The major advantages of echinocandins relative to other antifungal agents are their fungicidal activity against Candida spp, including fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata and C. krusei , combined with their relatively low potential for renal or hepatic toxicity or serious drug-drug interactions. Specific recommendations regarding the use of these agents are presented separately. (See "Treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults" and "Treatment and prevention of invasive aspergillosis" and "Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)", section on 'Addition of an antifungal agent' .)

Pharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

pharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

The major advantages of echinocandins relative to other antifungal agents are their fungicidal activity against Candida spp, including fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata and C. krusei , combined with their relatively low potential for renal or hepatic toxicity or serious drug-drug interactions. Specific recommendations regarding the use of these agents are presented separately. (See "Treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults" and "Treatment and prevention of invasive aspergillosis" and "Treatment of neutropenic fever syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (high-risk patients)", section on 'Addition of an antifungal agent' .)

Media:

pharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroidspharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroidspharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroidspharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroidspharmacology of beta 2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids