In an Ottawa study, 410 patients consented to open-ended vasectomy, and in a St. Louis study, 23 patients underwent open-ended vasectomy, in which the abdominal end is cauterized but the lumen on the testicular side is not ligated, clipped, or cauterized. In the Ottawa series, 3% of the patients developed no sperm granuloma and 97% did develop sperm granuloma. The Concept unit was used on 148 patients with a 4% failure rate; however, the Hemoclip application was used on 262 patients with only a % failure rate. In the St. Louis series, all 23 patients developed sperm granulomas with l case of recanalization. In 9 patients referred to St. Louis for chronic and persistent postvasectomy orchialgia with pain localized in the epididymis, the pain was relieved by vasovasostomy. Evidence indicated that heat cautery was not as efficient a method of sealing the vas as the Hemoclips due to the high failure rate.
Rossignol et al (2009) concluded that "[g]iven the positive findings of this study, and the shortage of proven treatments for individuals with autism, parents who pursue hyperbaric treatment for their child with autism can be assured that it is a safe treatment modality at the pressure used in this study ( atm), and that it may improve certain autistic behaviors. Further studies are needed by other investigators to confirm these findings; we are aware of several other planned or ongoing studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. However, in light of the positive results of this study and those of several previous studies, the use of hyperbaric treatment appears to be a promising treatment for children with autism".